Celestia (TIA)

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A pluggable consensus and data availability layer. Makes deploying a blockchain easy.



Audits & Exploits



Admin Keys





Token Allocation


Other Details

  • From its FAQ (3-1-2022):

"Celestia will have a token that will be used to secure the network via Proof of Stake, and to pay for transaction fees on the network. We plan to implement a fee-burn mechanism similar to EIP-1559 in Ethereum so that burnt fees will offset new token issuance as Celestia gains adoption."


Coin Distribution


  • Whitepaper or docs can be found [insert here].
  • Code can be viewed here.


  • Built on: its own layer.
  • Programming language used: Optimint "This is a replacement for Cosmos SDK's consensus framework Tendermint, that publishes blocks to Celestia instead of going through the Tendermint consensus process." 4-11-2022
  • From its website (3-1-2022):

"Celestia will support all flavors of rollups, but we are initially focused on the EVM and Cosmos SDK."

  • According to this thread (3-1-2022): Smart contracts can choose execution environment.

Transaction Details

  • Capacity (TPS):
  • Latency; from a thread on different DA layers (21-1-2024): "Celestia uses Tendermint, which is fast in terms of block finality time, but they also use a fraud-proof design to determine the accuracy of transactions."

How it works

  • From Analyst DAO (22-4-2022):

"Celestia node receives rollup transaction (rollup transaction is submitted by a rollup node)

  1. Celestia node ensures appropriate fees were paid
  2. Nodes order the data (ie produce some sort of time sequencing for the TXs)
  3. Attest to the data by collectively signing off on the block’s integrity
  4. Compartmentalize the data based on a DNS mapping that corresponds to a particular rollup that plugs into Celestia  

And that’s it! Just receive transactions, and order them into blocks. Unironically, Celestia was previously called Lazy Ledger before rebranding, a nod to the intentionally minimal functionality that the protocol affords.

One of the interesting properties of Celestia is the versatility it affords for execution. As demonstrated above, Celestia provides a protocol for ordering transactions into some sort of time sequencing, then applying consensus to these transactions. While seemingly trivial, its importance cannot be understated.  Now that we have a) a group of transactions within the block b) a collective view on the order in which these transactions appeared, any rollup node can apply transactions to its initial state in the ordering format as produced by Celestia, and compute the new state.

To stress this point further, the Celestia protocol is completely blind to the data within the transactions they are putting into blocks. It’s the rollup’s job to figure out how they want to interpret the data embedded within these transactions (i.e. the rollup themselves establish protocol rules).

There are two ways in which these rollups can configure their architecture to plug into Celestia:

1)      Sovereign Rollups

2)      Settlement Enforced Rollups (CEVMOS, Celestiums, etc)"

  • Acoording to this thread (3-1-2022):

Anyone is allowed to post anything on chain (even invalid transactions). Nodes will download the transactions compute state of chain locally. Here is where data availability proofs comes to play. It ensures coding and it will download a few random pieces that can confirm whether a transaction is valid. This happens irrespective of how high the block is.

"Celestia is a minimal blockchain that only orders and publishes transactions and does not execute them. By decoupling the consensus and application execution layers, Celestia modularizes the blockchain technology stack and unlocks new possibilities for decentralized application builders."

  • From Ansem's Q1 report (1-1-2022):

"They are building a blockchain dedicated to being the most efficient and decentralized data-availability layer and will be able to connect to other execution and settlement layers to complete the full modular stack. Since Celestia is only focused on data availability and ordering transactions, their methods for block verification can be simplified with data availability proofs. Essentially, each node in the network is required to sample a small piece of each block to confirm its’ validity and through this collective sampling the network comes to consensus. Because of this, as more nodes are added to the network, it actually increases the throughput of the entire system so the network benefits from being as decentralized as possible."



  • An upgrade to the testnet Mamaki is scheduled (19-10-2022) for late October 2022.


  • Celestia supports up to 100 validators (21-1-2024).

Validator Stats

Liquidity Mining


"Because Celestia does not validate transactions, its throughput is not bottlenecked by state execution like traditional blockchains. Thanks to a property of data availability proofs, Celestia’s throughput scales with the number of users."

  • From its FAQ (3-1-2022):

"Celestia is able to scale as the number of users (light nodes) in the network increases. Celestia remains secure so long as there are enough nodes on the network to sample the entire block. This means that as more nodes join the network and sample, the block size can increase accordingly without sacrificing security or decentralization. Doing so on a traditional blockchain would sacrifice decentralization because a bigger block size would create a larger hardware requirement for nodes to download and verify data. Rollups also depend on data availability for their scalability, so better scaling potential for Celestia will also translate to better scaling potential for the rollups utilizing Celestia."


Other Details

Oracle Method

Their Other Projects


"In December 2021, Evmos announced a partnership with Celestia to build CEvmos, Celestia-EVM on Cosmos. Celestia is a layer 1 built to handle data availability and settlement but not execution, allowing devs to utilize their own execution environment and using Celestia’s data availability and security.

CEVMos utilizes Celestia and EVMos to create a modular stack: EVMos for settlement, Celestia for data availability."


  • Can be found here (3-1-2022).


Projects that use or built on it

  • Osmosis is expanding outside of Cosmos and into Celestia’s DA layer (11-8-2023).
  • From their blog (20-10-2022):

"To date, modular blockchain projects such as Eclipse, Constellation and dYmension have chosen Celestia to be their data availability layer. Currently, Celestia is nurturing 26 projects in Modular Fellows, a new program that supports and mentors modular builders."


  • From a thread on different DA layers (21-1-2024):

"Celestia and Avail use large blocks, data availability sampling, and light nodes to serve increasing demand. EigenDA uses DACs, which are also considered scalable, but more centralized."

"Celestia and Polygon Avail (and probably others that we’re not yet aware of) are new blockchains that have been specially designed to solve the data availability problem, in what is called ‘modular blockchain’ architecture. These blockchains don't verify transactions, but simply check that each block was added by consensus and that new blocks are available to the network.

Rollups do not post their blocks to a smart contract, but directly onto data availability chain as raw data. The Celestia consensus and data availability layer doesn’t interpret or perform computations on the rollup blocks, nor run an on-chain light client for the rollup."

Pros and Cons



  • Had recent investment from bankrupt FTX. This could mean fall-out risk. The investment turned out to be $1.75M in tokens, this is before Celestia has announced a token (8-12-2022).

Team, Funding and Partners




"Led by Bain Capital Crypto and Polychain Capital with participation from Placeholder, Galaxy, Delphi Digital, Blockchain Capital, NFX, Protocol Labs, Figment, Maven 11, Spartan Group, FTX Ventures, Jump Crypto, and select angels including Balaji Srinivasan, Eric Wall and Jutta Steiner."


"Celestia’s first partners (or ‘Modular Fellows’, as it calls them) are mostly projects that enable easier rollup deployment by utilizing Celestia’s data architecture, which is designed to store rollup data, not transactions. Important examples include:

  1. dYmension: ‘Home of the RollApps’. This allows rollups to issue tokens and choose which data availability layer to use (e.g. Celestia or Polygon Avail).
  2. AltLayer: Ethereum-compatible tailored rollups-as-a-service. These are high-throughput ‘disposable’ rollups, where NFTs are minted and then bridged to an L1.
  3. Eclipse: Rollups using the Solana VM and the Inter-Blockchain Communication protocol."

"In mid‐Dec. 2021, EVMos announced partnership with Celestia to build modular tech stack for EVM dApps; it will be rollup centric at the execution layer ‐ Data availability: Celestia ‐ Settlement: EVMos EVM ‐ Execution: rollups (zk‐RU or optimistic RU)"


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